tv [untitled] January 21, 2011 1:30am-2:00am PST
. >> we're going to go over search and rescue in this class, go over some buildings and how you assess buildings. you already had classes on utility controls, correct? how about medical? did medical? okay, as i said, my name is alec, i'm on truck 11. let's go into some light search and rescue. before you start, what do you do? stop, look, listen and think. any time you pull up to an incident or you see something, you take a breath, assess the situation, use all your senses and think about what you are going to do.
those are all components of what we call the size-up. there are many components to size up. what's one of the components to size up? gathering facts. you want to assess the type of damage there is. what kind of situation is it? what is the issue? is it a medical problem? if it's a medical, is it a big hurt or a little hurt? is it a rescue situation and if it's a fire, do you have the resources to control or extinguish that fire? how about your situation, do you have all your people? do you have all the resources that you need? have you collected all the material that you need if you are going to start doing a lifting exercise because someone is trapped? because you never start a rescue, you never start a lifting exercise, never start anything, unless you know you are going to be able to finish it, have enough of the resources to do it. and do you have the right equipment? you need specialized equipment? do you have access to that? maybe, maybe not. so size up, you want to
establish your priorities, make your decisions. you want to come up with a plan and after you have a plan, you want to take action. remember, it's continuous fact gathering process. you want to evaluate your progress. there are 50 percent of the people can be rescued by who? this is where you come in for the next 30 percent to make it 80 percent of the people. the next 30 percent of the people can be rescued by you people. then there's another 15 percent, that's where the fire department comes in, or the sheriff's department, people who are trained to do those type of rescue. the other 5 percent is by specialized teams, the usar teams. if you are to get to somebody within the first 30 minutes, they have a 99 percent chance -- a greater than 99 percent chance of surviving. get to them within the first day, it dropping down to 81 percent. still not bad. but what happens on the second day?
plummets quite a bit, just under 34 percent. now you are always going to have your safety equipment with you, correct? when you get together as you assemble, make sure you have, at least one person has something here that you guys can all use. different types of buildings are in the city. we have wood, unreinforced masonry, you have high rise and you have tilt ups. what's the safest construction type to be? four stories or less. wood? yeah, wood framed building. why is wood the safest building to be in, 4 stories or less? it flexes, yeah, it's flexible. what's the danger here? chimney, yeah, fireplace. be aware of the fact that just because it's a wood building and the event caused some sort of compromise of the structure of the building and the building is still standing doesn't necessarily mean there's not a danger there. so what could you as nert's do
to make that situation better or at least keep it the same so no one else gets hurt? keep it off, yeah. keep people away. perfect. take out some of that yellow tape that you have, that yellow caution tape, and string it around around keep people back. in this particular case, what could you do to make that situation better? turn off the gas. where would you turn the gas off at? at the street, okay. that's a good place to do it. but you always want to do it at the safest location. so if the street is the safest location, that's where you would do it at. this house here fell over. doesn't have something called a sheer wall. so it's just a platform or a platform or a balloon, nothing that keeps the wall from racking, they call it. so you want to make sure that the building that you are in are sheered. this is a connection between the plate, stud and the bottom plate.
tie it all together. unreinforced masonry building. safe building or not such a safe building? not safe at all. you have deep set windows, arched windows, metal plate, then we can work. weak morter, what is that? brick on top of brick on top of brick. there's an ample of the header row, you see how they are turned perpendicular to each other, you can see the header rows in this one, see the brick going the other way about every 5 or 7 rows. deep set windows. here's a close up of one of those plates. a parapet wall is a clue that this building is an unreinforced building. which direction can that building go? right back out. this building, brick or wood? what are some of the clues? okay, what are the windows? they are deep set. there's a clue right there.
deep set. deep set window, unreinforced masonry. can you see the metal plates? there is a metal plate right over there in the corner, there's another one over there. hard to see. also has a parapet on it. deep set windows. even though it has stucco on it, don't be fooled that that's wood up above. it's all brick because it's deep set windows. here we go with part of the roof and the parapet. this is over on (inaudible) street. see where the bricks fell, right on top of a car. there were 5 people in that car. buildings like this, you are nearest, where's the best place to be, do you think? you want to be far away from it? you want to be far away from it initially? yeah. but what if you are not far away from it when it starts happening, are you going to try to outrun it? no. you want to get up close to that building because the bricks have a tendency to fall out, fall straight down. if you'll notice right up next
to the building there's not that many bricks. tilt up buildings, premade buildings. they are made on the site. generally speaking, you see warehouses, large expanse buildings are made out of them, usually one story buildings. in other words there's not a story on top. they didn't make their corner connections very well. when they didn't make their corner connections very well, they moved independent, one side would go this way, one side would move that way, then the roof will fall down. how about high rises, are they safe buildings to be in? what happens in a high rise when there's ground movement? sways. yeah, it sways. where is most of this damage going to be to high rise buildings? because they are not going to fall down. they are on rollers, they are on springs, they are designed to withstand movement. but what about the stuff inside those buildings? so where's most of the damage going to be in those buildings?
on the upper floors. so, high rise buildings different elements. you have structure and non-structural elements. steel beams are structural but it's the contents, the stuff inside, that will hurt you. outside, steel going up, structural part. in this you can see if you take a look at it, they have the non-structural which is the brownish orangish area. that would be your dropped ceilings, your light fixtures, your hvac system. in this particular case, the alcoa building, the structural members are on the outside of the building. so you can see it right away. what's the danger with this building? glass. good. glass. so you have your typical office. what are some of the hazards here? remember, earthquake island, what are some of the hazards?
the lights, glass windows, yeah, glass we already talked about, the bad things. how about all the book stuff? building is still standing but everything else will fall right on top of you. bookcases, you want to secure those; right? this is what's going it happen. if you as nerts you went in there and got a report that there may be people trapped, where would you start looking for them? upper floors and void spaces. again, we talked about glass. are these people a little too close, do you think? did they give you a rule of thumb how far away to stay from buildings. well, actually 1 1/2 times the height of the building. so if you are in a 30-foot building -- you already did the math -- you want to be 45 feet away. glass falls out, too, do you think it just falls straight down? no, it kites its way around. it can kite up to two blocks
away. be aware of that, got your helmet on. types of hazard, you have above ground, ground and below ground. what's an above ground hazard? glass, wires, falling objects. some of the ground level hazards are glass. what's bad about uneven surfaces that are slippery? we already talked about that. you fall, you're going to hurt yourself. is water a bad thing to have? water seeks its own level, there's a hole, covering up the hole. you could be walking and all of a sudden down into a hole, correct? or a basement. water has weight to it, can cause damage to buildings, cause buildings to collapse. and it doesn't mix very well with electricity. below ground hazards, if you come up and you see a leak and the water is pouring out of a building, you know how to control it or try to control it? sure, you go right up to that utility shut off, turn it off.
basements are bad places to be. there's usually only one way out and that's the way you went in. if that's compromised, you are in big trouble. forcible entry. when do you use forcible entry, what kind of tools do you use? you want to go in -- first thing you need to do is always try to get in the easiest way. what do you want to use to force entry? you can use axs, you are use pry bars or jacks, car jacks. you need to do a lift, you don't have any levers, there's some cars parked outside, you go up and ask the owner of the car, is it okay if i use your car jack? because you're not going to break in, are you? there's always cutting and boring. here is that ax. of course striking and hammering. how do you break glass? at the top, good. we're going to say that this is the glass from here on down, so how would you break it? do i just want to take it like
this and smash it this way? no. the end of the board, going to use the end of the board, but i'm also going to remember that the glass can hurt me. if i were to hit it like this, the glass could slide down, cut my hand. so you want to start at the top like he said, hold this down, turn your head away, you start at the top and smash the glass this way down like that. if it does slide down, it's going to go away from you and not towards your hand. real simple. use a long-handled tool, stand to one side, strike up at the top and you want to clean it all out before you go in there. in this part of the lecture we're going to talk about structural damage. we're going to talk about triaging buildings now, believe it or not. we're going to talk about how
to look at structural damage and tag these buildings either light, moderate or heavy damage buildings. we're going it talk a little bit about liquefaction, we're going to talk about search and rescue techniques and actually show you how we do search and rescue. then we're going to talk about lifting heavy objects. we're really talking about rescue here. so signs of possible structural damage, as a nert team, you have to be able to identify buildings. you have to be able, during a disaster, especially an earthquake, walk down the street and be able to look at buildings and understand this building is okay, this building is bad. as you walk down the street. especially if you are going to go into that building. things to look for, horizontal and vertical lines. in this room, most construction works at 90 degree angles. if you look around the room,
this beam is a little bit curved. but where the beam meets the wall, it hits at a 90 degree angle. basically makes a vertical and horizontal line. you want to look for these things when you look at a building. and it's not always obvious . if you look at this building, this one was an example of the racking we talked about. see how these studs are starting to fold on each other? if this whole thing fell over, the studs would be connected to each other. this is an example of the racking. obvious example of racking here; right? if you walk into this building, you are going to say this is heavily damaged. easy. large cracks. again, you want to look around the doors and the foundation. here right at the doors because, remember, the soft structure is the bottom structure. that's going to move the most. then right around the doors are
structural members of the house. that's where you are going to find a lot of the damage. this one -- but look at all the doorways again. this building, again, here in the marina. somebody wrote something on there. if you look really close it says, search. somebody wrote that there because maybe they thought somebody was inside, they went inside. we use a different method now. it's in your book if you did your homework. otherwise i'll show you later in the lecture. paint lines are another indicator of how damaged buildings are. if you want to look at the paint lines on this building, it's kind of hard to tell until you get up close. remember, this building is kind of a grayish tannish color, i guess. when you get a little bit closer, this side of the building should be the same color as this side of the building. what happened was this building moved away from the building next door and that's how far it moved. separation between buildings. you want to look at the separation to see if it's even, is it the same distance at the
bottom as at the top, but that's another indicator of how damaged buildings are. this one looks fairly even, but when you get closer you can tell with the racking on the bottom that this building was pulled away. liquefaction, liquefaction is a term they use when the ground is loose. usually when structures or infrastructure is built on sand or land fill, something that's not solid, what happens is in shaking, during an earthquake, the earth that's very loose, that sand or land fill, acts like water. this is sand, sand and water coming up through a hole. in japan, all these buildings were built on liquefaction. i forget what year this was, but it was one of the bigger earthquakes. 7 story buildings built on liquefaction. the amount of time the earth shook, the earth became liquid
and as it became liquid, the building sank into it until it stopped. when it stopped it just fell over. light damage buildings, superficial damage, broken windows, some plaster that might be cracked but basically a light damage building would be one that has mostly damage to the contents. shelves falling over, windows broken, that type of thing. if you had to go into a light damaged building, you would use these procedures. of course you gather information about a building before you go into it, as much information, who lives there, that type of thing. shut off any utilities needed, locate and triage any injured patients, document and communicate the location of any trapped or missing persons. it could be an invalid. in fact, most of the injuries apld most of the deaths in earthquake, they don't happen with structures falling down, they happen with items falling on you like televisions and bookcases.
that's most of the deaths that happen in earthquakes. a moderately damaged building, this would be one that has a greater amount of cracking on the interior. moderately damaged building, you can actually go into. the procedures you would follow are basically the same. gather information, shut off utilities when you need to, locate and stabilize injured patients and get them out, so evacuate the injured to a safe area. you want to get them out as soon as you can, get out yourself as soon as you can, and document what you found in that building. these are heavily buildings. these are the two buildings that actually collapsed three days after the earthquake. this building was leaning on this building. procedures for heavily damaged buildings, don't go in. but you still will gather information. shut off utilities if it's safe to do it. you report it. we can cordon off the area just to make sure nobody else goes
in the area. definitely tell the fire chief or whoever and we can go in there and try to do it safely. when we talk about search and rescue, i really want to make a distinction between searching and rescuing. searching is really basically looking for people; right? once we find a person we switch modes and go into this rescue mode. when we talk about search and rescue, try not to get it too mixed up because you think dfrpbtly based on what you are doing. if you are searching, you think about certain things and if you are rescuing somebody, you think about other things. the first rule, of course, would be do not become a victim yourself. whenever you do a search, you have to preplan. you have to understand who is doing what. we suggest that you work in two teams of at least two people, so that's at least four people doing a search at the very, very, very least. you want a team on the outside and a team on the inside.
proper safety equipment, we talked about equipment. we're only going to give you helmets. we're going to give you vests too. are the vests going to protect you from anything? no. any other equipment you have to get your own. gloves, if we have any extra we'll give you gloves. knee pads, you need good shoes, you need good clothes that won't rip so things like nails will be harder to rip through your skin. decide on the duties and the tools. who is good at what. if i physically can't do something when we show you how to do search and rescue, don't do it and make sure everybody else knows what you can and cannot do. that's very, very important. know where your emergency exits are and what your signals are. examine the exterior of a house. you want to know who's missing. if anybody is missing, does anybody live in the house? structural damage of the house, again, you want to know what
you're walking into. potential hazards, glass, water, anything broken glass. we mentioned some of that earlier. know your exit and entry points, know where the utility shut offs are if you have to turn them off. you don't have to turn them off all the time, only if you have to. any unique characteristics. does this house have a lot of glass, is it built on a hill side, is it built on stilts? before you enter, you are going to make a marking, make a slash near the front entry so everybody knows that you've gone inside. there's two things that are going to alert people that you have gone inside to do a search. one is a slash and the other is the other team outside. if there's four of you on a team, there should be two of you outside and a slash. when you enter a building, you might need forcible entry. do you smell gas? get out and turn it off, make sure it's safe. call out and listen because you are in there to do a search. you have to yell.
hey, nert team, nert volunteers. is anybody here? if you say let's call out, everyone is going to be calling out, hey, nert team. nobody can listen. hey, let's call out and give it a couple seconds, see if we can hear somebody. not only call out, make sure that you can listen, too. we want you to start your search from the top so if you go into the building, start from the top and then work your way back. we want you to do a left or right handed search pattern, meaning when you enter a room or a building, we want you to find a wall and stay on that wall. we want to have somebody stay on that wall because that wall will show you the way out. mark each individual unit so the x that i was talking about, if you go into a multi-unit apartment building, you with want to do it on each unit.
so i go into this apartment, you're going to do a slash, go into the apartment, do your search, when you come out and complete the x. again at the top is the time that you entered. they want you to write the time that you leave also. so you would cross out the time that you entered and write the time that you leave. when the x is completed, they know the search was completed at that time. where do you put this x where would you write it? would you write it on the door? no, when you put it on the door and you open the door, then it's gone. you want to put it on a wall next to the door. now we're going to talk about rescuing. same thing when you rescue, you want to survey the hazards, you want to survey the area. assess the medical conditions of victims, you have somebody when you're ready, when you find somebody, what are we going to do? do i have enough people to get this person out, do i have the tools i need, do i need to break a door or break a wall open, what would be the escape
plan just in case. remember, these are just in case questions again. what if there's an aftershock, what's my quickest way out? and develop a rescue plan. it's hard to develop a rescue plan when you are doing a search because you don't know where the victim is going to be. don't push your physical or mental limits. if you need help, go get it. remember, you have a team outside that matches your team inside. you can send them and say, hey, go for more help. tell them we need more help. we found a victim and we can't do it ourselves. go back to our nert staging area, go back, tell the battalion chief, get whatever you need. eliminate your hazards first, make sure you can work safely, remove the victim quickly but bottom line, safely. lifting procedures, we're going to show you a demonstration what you do but when you do it, make sure you treat the patient and tell them what's going on.
you want to crib the object. again, cribing goes underneath the object or the load to make sure it stays off the patient. that's the idea of cribbing. lift the load the height of one piece of cribbing. you want to lift a little at a time. you'll understand when we actually do this. whenever the object is set down, it never rests on the patient. it rests on the cribbing. here is the i-beam, here is the patient right here. they're going to build it high enough so the i-beam is resting on that cribbing right there because that would take the weight, hopefully take some of the weight off of the patient. so now here is the patient, here is the load right here on the patient, there's cribbing right here, there's a rescuer standing here with this lever. the lever is resting on this fulcrum right here and they're going to lift this up and as they lift it, they are going to build the cribbing underneath the load so that the load will rest back on to the cribbing.
so clear this area, let's find something we can use as a fulcrum. very good. let's find a fulcrum, let's find some cribbing and find a lever. so we need a lever that's long, right. we need a fulcrum that we can rest it on, then we need something we can use as cribbing. don't lift yet. you don't want to lift until you are ready. lift slowly, on 3. 1, 2, 3. . >> the fulcrum is under the cribbing. >> put it back on the patient. get them out. we're going to show you 4 rescue carries. one of the rescue carries, we're actually going to have you do it, it's a blanket drag. something good if you are by yourself and you have to get somebody out, you get a blanket
or a sheet or a throw rug. works well on this kind of floor, doesn't work well on carpet. a chair is a similar type carry. if you put them on a chair, it works much better. works great on stairs. last thing we're going to show you is an improvised blanket stretcher, how to carry somebody long distances. you want to use at least 4 people or 6, however many hands you can get on them. . >> grab that, make sure it's past their head. pull that out but only on the count. >> okay, on the count of 3. 1, 2, 3, roll. >> okay, now while you have this person up, remember, about halfway, roll the person back. now you guys do it. you are going to grab the legs. >> count of 3, 1, 2, 3.
take a look at the back again, everything look okay? roll them back down. . >> 1, 2, 3. >> move in close, move in tight. it's easier. okay, now you want to go that way. okay, you want to go my way. 1, 2, 3. >> okay, why don't you stop. >> 1, 2, 3. >> make sure your back is straight. >> basically when you are using a ladder out there, make sure you keep the ladder 10 feet away from wires. make sure the ladder is secure, that it's on stable ground, that it's even. if it's on a hill, we really don't want you to use it on a hill, but if it's on a hill, make sure it's shimmieed with something stable. make sure it's at the right angle, we suggest 70 degrees. if you stick your hand on a
rung, the angle of the ladder is about the right angle there. never let go of the ladder. stand in the center, climb straight up. if you climb on the edges of the rung, the ladder will go this way. look up so you know where you are going and you can see where you're going to climb. walk vertically. don't step off to the side of the ladder. kind of common sense. make sure you read chapter 7 through the . >> this class is managing a disaster. what happens and how